American Board of Internal Medicine: Research Pathway

Academic medicine training is a long road via internal medicine.

Minimum Training Requirement in the Subspecialty Research Pathway

DISCIPLINE IM

CLINICAL

TRAINING

SS

CLINICAL

TRAINING

RESEARCH

TRAINING

(80%)

TOTAL

TRAINING

EXAM

ADMINISTRATION

ELIGIBILITY

Adolescent Medicine
Allergy & Immunology
Critical Care Medicine
Endocrinology, Diabetes, & Metabolism
Geriatric Medicine
Hematology
Hospice & Palliative Medicine
Infectious Disease
Nephrology
Medical Oncology
Pulmonary Disease
Rheumatology
Sleep Medicine
Sports Medicine
24 months 12 months 36 months 72 months/

6 years

Fall, PGY-6
Gastroenterology
Hematology/Medical Oncology
Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine
Rheumatology/Allergy & Immunology
24 months 18 months 36 months 78 months/

6.5 years

Fall, PGY-7
Cardiovascular Disease 24 months 24 months 36 months 84 months/

7 years

Fall, PGY-7

Tertiary certification

Add the minimum clinical requirement of the subspecialty to the Research Pathway

Transplant Hepatology 24 months 30 months

(18 GI +

12 T-HEP)

36 months 90 months/

7.5 years

Fall, PGY-8
Advance Heart Failure & Transplant Cardiology 24 months 36 months

(24 CVD +

12 AHFTC)

36 months 96 months/

8 years

Fall, PGY-8
Interventional Cardiology 24 months 36 months

(24 CVD +

12 ICARD)

36 months 96 months/

8 years

Fall, PGY-8
Adult Congenital Heart Disease 24 months 42 months

(24 CVD +

18 ACHD)

36 months 102 months/

8.5 years

Fall, PGY-9
Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology 24 months 48 months

(24 CVD +

24 CCEP)

36 months 108 months/

9 years

Fall, PGY-9
  • Internal medicine training requires 20 months direct patient responsibility
  • Ambulatory clinics during research training (10%) ½ day per week
  • IM exam administration eligibility, Summer PGY-4
  • All other standard ABIM requirements for ABIM initial certification eligibility must be met

Source

American Board of Internal Medicine: Research Pathway Policies and Requirements

Sushi Rice

Large amount of seasoned rice that can be refrigerated and used in weekly meals


Ingredients

  • 1/2 cup rice vinegar
  • 1/2 cup soy sauce or 1/2 cup miso paste
  • 3 cups dry brown rice (rinse first)
  • 5 cups of water

Prepare

Wash rice repeatedly until water remains clear

Strain rice in mesh sieve

Mix all ingredients in medium-large pot

Top pot with lid

SushiRice_Prep_660x495.jpg


Cook

Turn stove to max heat until boiling

Once boiling begins, reduce heat as low as possible while bubbles still forming

Let boil with lid on for 70 minutes

Keep lid on for at least 20 more minutes

Serve or let cool overnight and place in fridge in the morning

SushiRice_Cooked_660x495.jpg


What to Do with All that Sushi Rice?

Well you can, you know, make sushi with it

I keep the rice in my fridge and eat it with whatever I have at the moment.

It’s a good base for a chicken and broccoli bowl, or whatever meal you can imagine.

I like adding it to salads; for example, mix:

  • Spinach
  • Bit of red onion, chopped
  • Jalapeño, chopped
  • 1/4 cup of raisins
  • Fresh basil, minced
  • Fresh mint, minced
  • Dash of garlic salt
  • Dress with 1 tbsp of toasted sesame oil

SushiRice_Salad_660x495.jpg


 

Simpson’s Paradox

From Wikipedia

“Simpson’s paradox, or the Yule–Simpson effect, is a phenomenon in probability and statistics, in which a trend appears in several different groups of data but disappears or reverses when these groups are combined. It is sometimes given the descriptive title reversal paradox or amalgamation paradox.”

This seems counterintuitive, but the 5 minute video below explains the concept well.


Source

Wikipedia: Simpson’s paradox

Minute Physics: Simpson’s Paradox

Pecan Cinnamon Roles

My grandma learned how to make these during HomeEc in the 60’s, so you know they’re good.


Traditional Roll Dough

This dough recipe is enough for two pans worth of cinnamon rolls.

Ingredients

  • ¼ cup warm water (105º to 115º F)
  • 2 ¼ teaspoon (1 pack) active dry baker’s yeast
  • ¼ cup sugar
  • ¾ cup lukewarm milk (scalded then cooled)
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 1 egg
  • ¼ cup shortening, butter, or margarine, softened
  • 3 ¾ to 4 cups all purpose flour (if using self rising flour, omit salt)

Activate Yeast

Dissolve yeast in warm water; wait 5-10 minutes.

Sprinkle the sugar in warm water yeast mixture.

If bubbles appear, the yeast is good.

Mix it

Stir in milk, salt, egg, shortening and 2 cups of the flour.

Beat until smooth

Work the Dough

Mix in enough of the remaining flour to make dough easy to handle.

Turn dough onto lightly floured board

Knead until smooth and elastic, about 5 minutes.

Let it Rise

Place in greased bowl and cover it with a towel.

Allow the dough to rise in a warm place until it doubles in size, about 1 ½ to 2 hours.

The dough is ready if impressions remain.

Divide the dough in half.


Pecan Cinnamon Roll Topping

Prep the pans with this pecan topping while waiting for the dough to rise.

(The pecan topping can be skipped to make plain cinnamon roles.)

Note, these ingredients are for a single pan.

Ingredients

  • ½ cup pecan halves
  • ¼ cup (2 oz) unsalted butter
  • 3 tablespoons light corn syrup
  • ½ cup of brown sugar (packed)

Spread and Drizzle

Spread pecans over bottom of baking pan.

Melt butter or margarine; stir in brown sugar and light corn syrup.

Pour mixture over pecans.

Repeat the above for pan number two.


Plain Roles (No Topping)

Spray the pan down with Pam or another cooking spray and you’re good to go.

CinnamonRoles_NoTopping


Cinnamon Rolls

This step is sufficient for one pan of cinnamon rolls.

Rinse, wash, repeat for the second batch.

Ingredients

  • ½ recipe Traditional Roll Dough (see above)
  • 2 tablespoons unsalted butter or margarine, softened
  • ¼ cup sugar
  • 2 teaspoons cinnamon sugar (1 part cinnamon to 12 parts white sugar)

Roll it Out

Sprinkle flour onto a cutting board to prevent sticking.

Roll dough into a 9×22 inch rectangle.

Spread warm butter, and sprinkle with cinnamon sugar.

Roll up the rectangle, beginning with the wide side.

Pinch edge of dough into roll to seal well.

Roll the sealed roll over the board to pick up excess sugar.

Stretch roll to make even.

Slice it Up

Cut roll into 12 slices (~1 inch in length)

Grease the pan if not using the pecan topping

Place slices slightly apart in pan or in greased muffin cups

Let rise until double in size

To help the rolls rise in the pan, place in oven set the oven to 100ºF.


The Second Rise

Let the rolls rise 20 minutes before baking.

CinnamonRoles_SecondRise


Bake 375ºF for 30 minutes

Heat oven to 375ºF

Bake 25 to 30 minutes or until browning

CinnamonRoles_Baking


Flip it

If making pecan rolls, flip pans over immediately after removing from the oven

This lets the syrup drizzle down.

CinnamonRoles_Final

Excerpts: The Profits of Nonprofit

The Profits of Nonprofit

The surprising results when drug development and altruism collide

By Megan Scudellari | January 1, 2011

“In 2002, the company identified a promising off-patent antibiotic once cast aside by a large pharmaceutical company for its lack of profitability. Since the drug had been previously approved and marketed in the late 1950s as a broad-spectrum antibiotic, iOWH was able to skip directly to a phase III clinical trial to test the drug as a treatment for visceral leishmaniasis. The trial commenced in 2003, and just three years later—record time in the drug development world—paromomycin was approved for sale in India…”

“Though the idea of a nonprofit pharmaceutical company is still new, nonprofit foundations and institutes have long been a staple in biomedical research funding in the United States. But they too are breaching the barriers between profit and nonprofit, adopting best practices from the for-profit business world…”

“Victoria Hale has also made a move toward borrowing business strategies, this time not only to enable nonprofits to develop drugs, but to make and market them without Big Pharma’s help. In 2008, she left iOWH to found a “second-generation” nonprofit pharmaceutical company called Medicines360. With a focus on women and children’s health, Medicines360 aims to become self-sustaining over time, using revenue from sales of its products at a premium price in the West to subsidize the same products for those who can’t afford them in developing countries. The company is currently developing an intrauterine device (IUD) for contraception…”

“In the United States, L3Cs, low-profit, limited-liability companies, now bridge that gap. Eight states have passed legislation that permits the creation of L3Cs—defined as socially beneficial for-profit ventures. Many companies have adopted the status, including alternative-energy companies, newspapers, and food companies, but no pharmaceutical or biotech company has yet attempted the model, according to L3C experts. That’s not to say they won’t, however.”


Source

The Scientist: The Profits of Nonprofit

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