This site has reporting guidelines for all types of studies. These are checklists for writing all parts of a paper on these various study types.
Equator Network: Reporting guidelines for main study types
Covariance and correlation are two statistical concepts that are closely related, both conceptually and by their name. The excerpts below are from a concise article that differentiates them.
“Correlation is a special case of covariance which can be obtained when the data is standardised. Now, when it comes to making a choice, which is a better measure of the relationship between two variables, correlation is preferred over covariance, because it remains unaffected by the change in location and scale, and can also be used to make a comparison between two pairs of variables.”
“The following points are noteworthy so far as the difference between covariance and correlation is concerned:
Learn about a piece of epidemiological history: one of the earliest examples of population-level clinical studies influencing medical practice. This podcast tells the story of how French physician Pierre Charles Alexandre Louis studied a group of patients and ended up discovering quantitative evidence on the detriment of bloodletting. Learning the history helps place these tools in a broader context, which isn’t crucial, but interesting nonetheless.
The first population study in history was born out of a dramatic debate involving leeches, “medical vampires,” professional rivalries, murder accusations, and, of course, bloodletting, all in the backdrop of the French Revolution. The second of a multipart series on the development of population medicine, this episode contextualizes Pierre Louis’ “numerical method,” his famous trial on bloodletting, and the birth of a new way for doctors to “know”.
Ronald Bayer, Ph.D., and Sandro Galea, M.D., Dr.P.H.
“The NIH’s most recent Estimates of Funding for Various Research, Condition, and Disease Categories report (www.report.nih.gov/categorical_spending.aspx) shows, for example, that total support in fiscal year 2014 for research areas including the words ‘gene,’ ‘genome,’ or ‘genetic’ was about 50% greater than funding for areas including the word ‘prevention.’…The proportion of NIH-funded projects with the words ‘public’ or ‘population’ in their title, for example, has dropped by 90% over the past 10 years, according to the NIH Reporter.”
“Without minimizing the possible gains to clinical care from greater realization of precision medicine’s promise, we worry that an unstinting focus on precision medicine by trusted spokespeople for health is a mistake — and a distraction from the goal of producing a healthier population.”
NEJM: Public Health in the Precision-Medicine Era by Ronald Bayer, Ph.D., and Sandro Galea, M.D., Dr.P.H.
“The fall of a prominent behavioral scientist tells of a system where research is judged not on merit, but on the attention it gets.”
“…remember that science is about asking questions, not pursuing answers.”
-James Hamblin, MD
The Atlantic: A Credibility Crisis in Food Science
“As much as 30% of the entire world’s stored data is generated in the health care industry. A single patient typically generates close to 80 megabytes each year in imaging and electronic medical record (EMR) data. This trove of data has obvious clinical, financial, and operational value for the health care industry, and the new value pathways that such data could enable have been estimated by McKinsey to be worth more than $300 billion annually in reduced costs alone…Read More”
NEJM Catalyst: Using It or Losing It? The Case for Data Scientists Inside Health Care by Marco D. Huesch, MBBS, PhD & Timothy J. Mosher, MD
Prolific child neurologist and author, Dr. Siegel uses a variety of images to explain what he thinks should be taught to children in America.
He uses his hand to provide a concrete visual model of the brain.
He also summarizes his “mindsight” model as a combination of brain, mind, and relationships. He expounds on the over emphasis of brain, or somatic, focus in mainstream culture and medical school. He argues we neglect the education of mind and relationships after children graduate kindergarten.
TEDx: The Power of Mindsight by Daniel J. Siegel, M.D. – 10/18/09
Survey questions or “items” (e.g., on a scale from 1 to 5, how strongly do you agree with the following statement…) may be repeated measures of certain underlying “factors”. Where factors are a true underlying construct that a survey attempts to measure. For example, a factor a survey may attempt to measure might be the anxiety caused by learning statistical analysis (using SPSS software). Factor analysis looks at understanding what is really being measured by multiple questions in a survey.
There are a ton of new concepts in this class, but online resources are often a more simple and clear way to learn.